Most people who breed purebred dogs claim some affiliation with a registry as a seal of quality for their puppies. Many use that affiliation as a marketing tool, but buyers often learn the hard way that an AKC puppy purchased from a pet store or a backyard breeder is highly unlikely to be of the same caliber as an AKC registered puppy purchased from a reliable breeder.[Help on finding the right source for your dog]
AKC registration works like this: When puppies are whelped, the breeder registers the litter; AKC sends a blue slip for each puppy in the litter; the breeder signs the puppy over to the buyer, who then registers the individual puppy in his name and is sent a registration certificate. Cost of litter registration is $20; cost of individual registration is $10.
AKC registration means that the parent dogs were registered, that an irresponsible breeder lied or was mistaken about the breeding that produced the litter, or that an unprincipled breeder was commiting outright fraud to raise the value of the puppies. Registration itself is neither a guarantee nor even an indication of quality. No one examines the parent dogs or the puppies to see if they really qualify for registration, and AKC depends on breeders to be honest when applying for a litter registration. Some unethical breeders apply for registration forms for puppies that have died or were never born, and they then use these certificates on puppies of doubtful parentage.
To complicate matters further, a female dog can be impregnated by several male dogs during her fertile cycle; if the dogs are not watched closely and appropriately confined, some puppies in the litter may have different fathers than other puppies. Thus, in kennels where males and females of different breeds typically run together, mixed breed puppies can actually be registered as purebred. This is not uncommon with puppy mill dogs or with backyard breeders who have several breeds, and has led to many complaints that the puppy purchased as a particular breed has grown into a dog that looks like something else.
AKC will investigate and may revoke the litter registration if the puppies or adult dogs do not have the appearance of the breed they are registered as. In the past, proof was difficult to obtain, but the advent of DNA testing has given inspectors a new weapon. If there is doubt about the parentage of a puppy, the AKC inspector can require a DNA test.
Every breed of dog has a standard, a set of guidelines for appearance and attitude that was developed by its national breed club and approved by AKC. That standard describes the dog. For example, the standard for the Labrador Retriever says: "The general appearance of the Labrador should be that of a strongly built, short-coupled, very active dog. He should be fairly wide over the loins and strong and muscular in the hindquarters. The coat should be close, short, dense and free from feather."
The Labrador standard then establishes the physical appearance of the breed in detail, including preferred structure, coat type, color, and movement. A dog that does not meet this standard is either a poor example of the breed or is not a Labrador Retriever at all. Adherence to the standard is important in maintaining the integrity and health of the breed. Dogs that are mixed breed or that do not meet the standard can still make wonderful pets, but they should be spayed or neutered so they do not contribute to the decline of the breed. Even if a dog looks like the breed it's supposed to be, its genes may carry characteristics that are atypical of the breed, and it should not be bred unless the dogs in the pedigree are free of debilitating genetic problems and serious faults.
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